The newer understanding through Quantum Field Theories (QFT) of the vacuum or indeed, any bipolar aether theory of the Faraday/Maxwell/Lorentz kind might account for the resistance to acceleration (inertia), the persistence of motion (momentum) and the attraction between atomic and molecular bodies of ordinary matter that is identified as gravitation, as first suggested by Andrei Sakharov in 1968^{1}^{ }and variously incorporated in other theories.^{1.1,1.2.}^{ }
The short distance Casimir^{2} attractive force demonstrates this new understanding of the active vacuum. Experimental evidence has existed for a long time to indicate that normal space and atomic matter are permeated by matter and antimatter particles yet largely ignored since the broad acceptance and working success of Einstein's Theories of Relatativity when contemporary scientists such as William Thomson, Michelson and Morley, Joseph Larmor, Oliver Lodge, sought 'a continuous aether'. Relativity theories, even when revised for the Sagnac Effect, were based upon postulates (assumptions) that in these days of quantum physics and GPS technology are not adequate.^{3}
A stable balanced 'crystal' lattice of matter and antimatter electrons and positrons was proposed and named EPOLA (ElectronPOsitronLAttice)
by Dr Menahem Simhony in 1973, who retired as an associate professor of physics and was appointed Prof. Emeritus of the Hebrew Univ, Jerusalem, in Oct 2006. Born in 1922, he died 29th June 2015. In his last few years he was frail and no longer able to develop the epola model's radical implications for Natural Physics (as he termed his realworld physics). Earlier, influenced by his work with semiconductors and crystals, he had proposed a lattice of electrons and holes but after two brief discussions with P.A.M.Dirac^{3.1 }^{ }that changed to electrons and positrons. The lattice has no residual charge and can account for zero point energy (ZPE)^{ }^{4,5} effects and could account for the 'missing' dark matter and energy in the Universe.
The displacement and distortion of this lattice by particles of ordinary atomic matter accounts for the attractiononly force between masses which we know as gravity, caused by the increased 'tension' behind each gravitating body in comparison with the 'thinned' lattice between them. It also exhibits as an inertial force for a moving body as the accompanying displacement wave in the lattice creates resistance to and persistence of motion through the lattice^{5.1}. The lattice may have been identified experimentally and accidentally by Prof. David Koltick^{ }^{6} in 1997 (also reported in the physics press^{6}^{ }). Others suggest an electron positron medium^{1.2} and that a crystalline or structured model of the vacuum is tenable.^{7.17.7} 

Representation of interlaced facecentredcubic epolattices, the particles of which would be randomly vibrating with thermal energy 
Applying the experimentally sound practices of crystallography (by Laue; the Braggs; Madelung and others) to this 'crystal' lattice of electrons and positrons, and using the measured binding energy of 1.02MeV at which an electronpositron pair is freed from the lattice (Anderson's experiment ^{8} in 1932), Dr Menahem Simhony in the early 1970's calculated the velocity of the bulk deformation wave through the polycrystalline vacuum by analogy with bipolar salt crystals. This velocity matched the measured speed of light in vacuum. By implication of the epola interactions this also will be the speed of operation of gravitational and inertial effects.
The electromagnetic vibrations of the bound electrons and positrons in the lattice can be shown to carry electromagnetic radiation (radio, light, gamma rays) as waves of energy and explain the differing properties of the 'soft' and 'hard' radiation frequencies. The particulate nature of photon packets of energy are shown to be a feature of the particulate nature of the carrier. The vibrations and displacements of the epola particles accompany moving particles of matter as de Broglie waves^{9} and explain the reason for inertia, gravity and Pauli's^{10} exclusion principle.
The same measured value of the binding energy and the analogy with bipolar crystals was used to calculate the dimensions of the lattice at approximately 4.4 fm (4.4 x 10^15 metres) in a facecentred cubic structure. The diffuse structure of an atom, described by Rutherford and Bohr ^{11}, is enormous in comparison. Unfortunately, Einstein was not gifted with the hindsight of this knowledge when he produced his theory of Special Relativity in 1905.
Prof Simhony described how the epola model could explain ALL the anomalies and fascinating discoveries of modern physics (outside the nucleus of atoms) and predicted the most recent findings of physics and cosmology. He has applied the Epola model to give explanations for superconductivity and for the neutrino^{12} as an exciton^{13} of the epola, an alternative state of electronpositron leptonic matter  as is positronium^{13}.
Prof Simhony has regularly contributed to the American Physical Society (APS) meetings and links to their archives of abstracts are provided at this site.
Please continue to the other pages on this site, click on the many links to see more about Prof Simhony's astute insight and to visit his own original web site, no longer active but archived here..
If you wish to discuss more, perhaps for examples of these claims and at greater depth, then do please email by clicking the link below. I shall be pleased to hear from you. The brevity of this introduction cannot do justice to the subject.
Best of all  obtain and read Prof Simhony's book, booklet and/or paperback,^{14}^{ }for full explanations with easy to understand mathematics and fully comprehend the mechanisms of the universe with a model that supersedes Einstein's theories of Relativity and relates to modern quantum theories. Then, reconsider the established knowledge and facts of fundamental physics in the light of Prof Simhony's work. It will never seem the same again!
R Guy Grantham; Lincoln, UK
09May2003/ rev.29th Sept 03; 19Feb 04, Jun04; link 5.1 added 28Nov04; minor edit Sept05; ref#6 link updated Jan07 MSBooks links relocated mar07. Ref#c link updated.Apr07; >Prof emeritus, editJun07. general update/ links revision Mar08
replaced dead link ref 4(a) 24 Jul2010./ rev: ' frail,no longer able' 29Sep2013 rgg/
References and additional information on the WWW:
(Return to this page from the links below with your Browser's BACK button or click on the UPARROW in top frame)
1. Sakharov, A. (1968) "Vacuum quantum fluctuations in curved space and the theory of gravitation", Sov. Phys.Dokl., Vol. 12, No. 11, pp. 10401041,; Dokl. Akad. Nauk Ser. Fiz. 177 (1967) 7071.
SEE ALSO: The origin of inertia. The California Institute for Physics and Astrophysics (CIPA) http://www.calphysics.org/inertia.html (see' Objections' section for ref. to Sakharov).
1.1 "Inertia as reaction of the vacuum to accelerated motion" Haisch and Rueda, Feb 1998, http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/physics/9802031
1.2 Download the Aether model of the vacuum by the late Dr Allen Rothwarf, with an electron positron plasma in a negative energy (bound) state compared to the vacuum. click here. Paper archived on this site courtesy of his brother Dr F Rothwarf whose paper, http://arxiv.org/abs/astroph/0703280, coauthored with Prof S Roy, expands the model.
2. The Casimir force: Stochastic processes in quantum theory http://www.calphysics.org/research.html
3. Relativity and GPS , Ronald R. Hatch, "A Modified Lorentz Ether Theory" Infinite Energy, Vol 7, No. 39, pp 1423, 2001
also see Ruyong Wang's listings of ION proceedings http://web.stcloudstate.edu/ruwang/ and Modified Sagnac Experiment of Measuring TravelTime Difference between CounterPropagating Light Beams in a Uniformly Moving Fiber http://web.stcloudstate.edu/ruwang/2003_PLA.htm
and Sir Joseph Larmor, Aether & Matter (1900); whose thoughts were very close to those of M.Simhony, Larmor even considered positive and negative electrons, extending upon the theory of James McCullagh (180947).
Oliver Lodge, The Ether of Space (1909); see also "Oliver Lodge and the Liverpool Physical Society" by Peter Rowlands
3.1 P.A.M Dirac, founder of mathematical theory of Quantum Mechanics http://wwwgap.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Dirac.html
http://education.iop.org/Schools/supteach/Dirac.html
4. Hal Puthoff's energy research  what is this force that knocks you down? http://www.earthtech.org/publications/JSEv12_295.pdf
B. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. E. Puthoff, "Inertia as a ZeroPoint Field Lorentz Force," Phys. Rev. A 49, 678 (1994).
Download pdf and other reports from http://www.earthtech.org/publications/index.html
5. Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations: A New Rosetta Stone of Physics?.Dr. H. E. Puthoff http://www.ldolphin.org/zpe.html ).
5.1 Mass Increase with Velocity is a Dynamical Effect. Patrick Cornille & George Galeczki; http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/Links/Papers/Gmass.pdf
6. "Electron research could lead to 'new and unique physics'" Prof. David Koltick
Perdue 'Perspective' Spring 1997 http://www.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/1997/970110.Koltick.electron.html (link updated 01/07)
Also:. A.I.P. Physics News "Getting a Peek at Bare Electrons" Jan 1997, http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/1997/split/pnu3031.htm
and reported by: I. Levine, D. Koltick, et al., Physical Review Letters, v.78, 1997, no.3, p.424
7.1 General Ether Theory (GET) of Ilja Schmelzer at http://www.iljaschmelzer.de/ and especially  download his polycrystalline ether proposal from the LANL arXiv site: http://arxiv.org/pdf/hepth/0209167
7.2. Various papers by Dr. Jorge A. Montemayor Aldrete (et al).  on Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model
Analogy between dislocation creep and relativistic cosmology; Rev.Mex.Fis.51:461475,2005; www.ejournal.unam.mx/rmf/no515/RMF51505.pdf
Entropy Bound for the Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model; http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0509/0509046.pdf
Thermodynamics of the Transformation of Gravitational Waves into Matter for a Vacuum Space Model; http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0509/0509047.pdf Gravitational Stability for a Vacuum Cosmic Space Crystalline Model; http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0603/0603097.pdf
The Cosmological Constant for the Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model; http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0603/0603101.pdf
7.3 'Quantum gravity: progress from an unexpected direction', Matt Visser, Washington Univ. www.phys.lsu.edu/mog/mog19/node12.html
7.4 Subquantum Structuring of the Physical Vacuum, David Finkelstein and Ross Tessien http://www.rialian.com/rnboyd/finkelsteintessien.htm
doi:10.1088/02649381/14/1A/011;
1997 Class. Quantum Grav. 14 A127A141and http://arxiv.org/abs/quantph/0601002
General Quantization
7.5 The Crystalline Vacuum,, Harold Aspden, 1998 Energy Science Essay #13; http://www.energyscience.org.uk/essays/ese13.htm
7.6 Mass Increase with Velocity is a Dynamical Effect, Patrick Cornille & George Galeczki www.journaloftheoretics.com/Links/Papers/Gmass.pdf (see conclusion)
7.7 Article and Paper by Dr Dietmar Rothe  on this website Click Here (Return here with your browser's backarrow)
8. Biographical Memoirs  Carl David Anderson, http://www.nap.edu/html/bio73h/anderson.html
9. Wave Mechanics, Prince Louis de Broglie, http://www.davisinc.com/physics/ ;
de Broglie Waves  http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/quant/node6.html ;
Wave or Particle  or Both. http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/chm386/rudiment/tourquan/broglie.htm
10. Wolfgang Ernst Pauli. http://wwwgap.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Pauli.html
Pauli's Exclusion Principle. http://www.cmmp.ucl.ac.uk/~ajf/1B23/qm/node19.html
11. Ernest Rutherford http://www.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/physicists/rutherford%20prelim.htm
Abstract  "The Scattering of the a and b Rays and the Structure of the Atom", March7th 1911;
http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/ChemHistory/Rutherfordatomabstract.html ;
Niels Hendrik David Bohr  http://wwwgap.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Bohr_Niels.html
12. The Ultimate Neutrino Page  http://cupp.oulu.fi/neutrino
The Neutrino and its Friends  http://www.ps.uci.edu/~superk/neutrino.html
13 Exciton  see the definition of a 'MottWannier exciton' at the Freedictionary.com http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/exciton
also Positronium http://www.mit.edu/people/pshaltis/positronium.htm ;
Positron & Positronium Physics at UCL, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/positronphysics/title.html
and First Detailed Positronium Scattering Experiment Physics News Update, 609 #2, October 15, 2002;
http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/2002/split/6092.html
14. Publications by Dr M Simhony  


The booklet and paperback are NOW available as free downloads from this site. See Introduction page 
Click here to email the author of this editorial: rgg@epola.co.uk (please include the word 'positron' in your subject line to avoid the spam filter)! 
Rev 26Jan2012 to include ref and links to bi=ooks by Larmor and Lodge. Added 'interlaced to legend of figure Links to Larmor and Lodge books added 26Jan12 rgg Changed wording 30th June2015,Menahem Simohony deceased