An Introduction to the EPOLA model

by R Guy Grantham


The newer understanding through Quantum Field Theories (QFT) of the vacuum or indeed, any bipolar aether theory of the Faraday/Maxwell/Lorentz kind might account for the resistance to acceleration (inertia), the persistence of motion (momentum) and the attraction between atomic and molecular bodies of ordinary matter that is identified as gravitation, as first suggested by Andrei Sakharov in 19681 and variously incorporated in other theories.1.1,1.2.


The short distance Casimir2  attractive force demonstrates this new understanding of the active vacuum. Experimental evidence has existed for a long time to indicate that normal space and atomic matter are permeated by matter and antimatter particles yet largely ignored since the broad acceptance and working success of Einstein's Theories of Relatativity when contemporary scientists such as William Thomson, Michelson and Morley, Joseph Larmor, Oliver Lodge, sought 'a continuous aether'.  Relativity theories, even when revised for the Sagnac Effect, were based upon postulates (assumptions) that in these days of quantum physics and GPS technology are not adequate.3


A stable balanced 'crystal' lattice of matter and antimatter electrons and positrons was proposed and named EPOLA (Electron-POsitron-LAttice)

Applying the experimentally sound practices of crystallography (by Laue; the Braggs; Madelung and others) to this 'crystal' lattice of electrons and positrons, and using the measured binding energy of 1.02MeV at which an electron-positron pair is freed from the lattice (Anderson's experiment 8 in 1932),  Dr Menahem Simhony in the early 1970's calculated the velocity of the bulk deformation wave through the polycrystalline vacuum by analogy with bipolar salt crystals. This velocity matched the measured speed of light in vacuum.  By implication of the epola interactions this also will be the speed of operation of gravitational and inertial effects.


The electromagnetic vibrations of the bound electrons and positrons in the lattice can be shown to carry electromagnetic radiation (radio, light, gamma rays) as waves of energy and explain the differing properties of the 'soft' and 'hard' radiation frequencies. The particulate nature of photon packets of energy are shown to be a feature of the particulate nature of the carrier. The vibrations and displacements of the epola particles accompany moving particles of matter as de Broglie waves9 and explain the reason for inertia, gravity and Pauli's10 exclusion principle.

The same measured value of the binding energy and the analogy with bipolar crystals was used to calculate the dimensions of the lattice at approximately 4.4 fm (4.4 x 10^-15 metres) in a face-centred cubic structure.  The diffuse structure of an atom, described by Rutherford and Bohr 11, is enormous in comparison. Unfortunately, Einstein was not gifted with the hindsight of this knowledge when he produced his theory of Special Relativity in 1905.

Prof Simhony described how the epola model could explain ALL the anomalies and fascinating discoveries of modern physics (outside the nucleus of atoms) and predicted the most recent findings of physics and cosmology.  He has applied the Epola model to give explanations for superconductivity and for the neutrino12  as an exciton13 of the epola, an alternative state of electron-positron leptonic matter - as is positronium13.


Prof Simhony has regularly contributed to the American Physical Society (APS) meetings and links to their archives of abstracts are provided at this site.


Please continue to the other pages on this site, click on the many links to see more about Prof Simhony's astute insight and to visit his own original web site, no longer active but archived here..


If you wish to discuss more, perhaps for examples of these claims and at greater depth, then do please e-mail by clicking the link below. I shall be pleased to hear from you. The brevity of this introduction cannot do justice to the subject.


Best of all - obtain and read Prof Simhony's book, booklet and/or paperback,14 for full explanations with easy to understand mathematics and fully comprehend the mechanisms of the universe with a model that supersedes Einstein's theories of Relativity and relates to modern quantum theories. Then, reconsider the established knowledge and facts of fundamental physics in the light of Prof Simhony's work. It will never seem the same again!



R Guy Grantham;   Lincoln, UK

09May2003/ rev.29th Sept 03; 19Feb 04, Jun04; link 5.1 added 28Nov04; minor edit Sept05; ref#6 link updated Jan07 MSBooks links relocated mar07. Ref#c link updated.Apr07; >Prof emeritus, editJun07. general update/ links revision Mar08

replaced dead link ref 4(a) 24 Jul2010./ rev: ' frail,no longer able' 29Sep2013 rgg/




References and additional information on the WWW:

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1.   Sakharov, A. (1968) "Vacuum quantum fluctuations in curved space and the theory of gravitation", Sov. Phys.-Dokl., Vol. 12, No. 11, pp. 1040-1041,; Dokl. Akad. Nauk Ser. Fiz. 177 (1967) 70-71.  

 SEE ALSO:   The origin of inertia. The California Institute for Physics and Astrophysics (CIPA) (see' Objections' section for ref. to Sakharov).  


1.1  "Inertia as reaction of the vacuum to accelerated motion" Haisch and Rueda, Feb 1998,


1.2 Download the Aether model of the vacuum by the late Dr Allen Rothwarf, with an electron positron plasma in a negative energy (bound) state compared to the vacuum. click here. Paper archived on this site courtesy of his brother Dr F Rothwarf whose paper,, co-authored with Prof S Roy, expands the model.


2.   The Casimir force: Stochastic processes in quantum theory


3.   Relativity and GPS , Ronald R. Hatch, "A Modified Lorentz Ether Theory" Infinite Energy, Vol 7, No. 39, pp 14-23, 2001

    also  see Ruyong Wang's listings of ION proceedings   and Modified Sagnac Experiment of Measuring Travel-Time Difference between Counter-Propagating Light Beams in a Uniformly Moving Fiber

   and  Sir Joseph Larmor, Aether & Matter (1900); whose thoughts were very close to those of M.Simhony, Larmor even considered positive and negative electrons, extending upon the theory of James McCullagh (1809-47).

Oliver Lodge, The Ether of Space (1909); see also "Oliver Lodge and the Liverpool Physical Society" by Peter Rowlands

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3.1  P.A.M Dirac, founder of mathematical theory of Quantum Mechanics                      


4.   Hal Puthoff's energy research - what is this force that knocks you down?

      B. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. E. Puthoff, "Inertia as a Zero-Point Field Lorentz Force," Phys. Rev. A 49, 678 (1994).

      Download pdf and other reports from


5.    Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations: A New Rosetta Stone of Physics?.Dr. H. E. Puthoff ).


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5.1   Mass Increase with Velocity is a Dynamical Effect. Patrick Cornille & George Galeczki;


6.   "Electron research could lead to 'new and unique physics'" Prof. David Koltick

       Perdue 'Perspective' Spring 1997 (link updated 01/07)

 Also:.    A.I.P. Physics News "Getting a Peek at Bare Electrons" Jan 1997,

and reported by: I. Levine, D. Koltick, et al., Physical Review Letters, v.78, 1997, no.3, p.424


7.1 General Ether Theory (GET) of  Ilja Schmelzer at  and especially - download his polycrystalline ether proposal from the LANL arXiv site:


7.2. Various papers by Dr. Jorge A. Montemayor Aldrete (et al). - on Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model

    Analogy between dislocation creep and relativistic cosmology; Rev.Mex.Fis.51:461-475,2005;

    Entropy Bound for the Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model;

   Thermodynamics of the Transformation of Gravitational Waves into Matter for a Vacuum Space Model;    Gravitational Stability for a Vacuum Cosmic Space Crystalline Model;

   The Cosmological Constant for the Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model;


          7.3 'Quantum gravity: progress from an unexpected direction', Matt Visser, Washington Univ.


7.4  Subquantum Structuring of the Physical Vacuum, David Finkelstein and Ross Tessien

             See Also: David Ritz Finkelstein et al 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. 14 A127-A141   doi:10.1088/0264-9381/14/1A/011;  

            and David Ritz Finkelstein 'General Quantization


7.5 The Crystalline Vacuum,, Harold Aspden, 1998 Energy Science Essay #13;


7.6 Mass Increase with Velocity is a Dynamical Effect, Patrick Cornille & George Galeczki (see conclusion)


7.7   Article and Paper by Dr Dietmar Rothe - on this website Click Here  (Return here with your browser's back-arrow)


8.   Biographical Memoirs - Carl David Anderson,


9.    Wave Mechanics, Prince Louis de Broglie, ;

       de Broglie Waves -  ;

        Wave or Particle - or Both.  


10.   Wolfgang Ernst Pauli.    

        Pauli's Exclusion Principle.


11.   Ernest Rutherford

       Abstract - "The Scattering of the a and b Rays and the Structure of the Atom", March7th 1911;  ;

      Niels Hendrik David Bohr -

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12.  The Ultimate Neutrino Page -  

       The Neutrino and its Friends -  

13    Exciton - see the definition of  a 'Mott-Wannier exciton' at the

  also  Positronium ;                                                           

       Positron & Positronium Physics at UCL,  

and   First Detailed Positronium Scattering Experiment  Physics News Update, 609 #2, October 15, 2002;


14. Publications by Dr M Simhony -





 The booklet and paperback are NOW available as free downloads from this site.   See Introduction  page

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 (Book available

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 (please include the word 'positron' in your subject line to avoid the spam filter)!


Rev 26Jan2012 to include ref and links to bi=ooks by Larmor and Lodge. Added 'interlaced to legend of figure   Links to Larmor and Lodge books added 26Jan12 rgg   Changed wording 30th June2015,Menahem Simohony deceased